If this month you get a chance to finish a project that you really care about, you will be satisfied with the results. The Empress signifies the queen of life, the ideal woman, the archetypal mother. She represents the matriarchal goddess, being part of nature, fertility, sexuality, and the generative forces.
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Sex Hustle Vibe Success. Card of the Day The Empress The Empress signifies the queen of life, the ideal woman, the archetypal mother.
Today's Reading Choose your cards. Get a Live Tarot Reading. AdvisorAmber Hi and welcome to my page! My name is Advisor Amber and I would Manage your newsletters To manage your subscriptions, please type in your email below. Julian, then Gregorian calendar from the pre-Western Sanskrit, Khmer and Thai system was the Roman uncoupling of calendrical months from the moon.
According to classical traditions, Julius Caesar regularised the Roman calendar by alternating 31 and 30 days for odd and even months respectively, counting from March, the traditional first month of the Roman calendar. The moon played no role in this count. He also instituted the leap year system, with days for February. Julius Caesar then renamed the fifth month starting from March after himself as "July". We have his nephew, Caesar Augustus, to thank for upsetting the alternating system. Augustus, renaming the sixth month of Sextilis after himself our "August" , changed its count from 30 to 31 days, reportedly to avoid feeling slighted.
This system, also used in colonial India, was officially established in by King Chulalongkorn when other attributes of the Western calendar were adopted. Note that suffix [khom] indicates a day solar month, [yon] a day one. Prior to , traditional Thai practice had in fact recognised the need for extra leap-year like days, called [athisurathin]. Their addition was specified by a rather complex principle involving a variable called the [kammacubala] see Eade ; 47 and Prasert Na Nagara A number of traditional Thai Buddhist festivals and other events are determined by the phases of the moon, as shown in 5.
The equinoxes are points on the ecliptic where the sun is located when day and night are exactly equal in length. The Spring or Vernal Equinox has been widely taken to be the starting point of the solar year.
As Hipparchus c. Thus "Aries" can either mean either i the group of stars traditionally seen as the figure of a ram—the actual star group— or ii the degree region of the ecliptic immediately following the Vernal Equinox—wherever that may fall. After adopting the Western or Babylonian zodiac, the Hindu astrologers opted for i , while the Western astrologers opted for ii.
For India, this effectively stabilised the definition of the Greco-Hindu zodiac for a Vernal Equinox value of about AD near alpha Arietis , while the Western zodiac has continued to slip backwards, and is presently on the Pices-Aquarius line, in terms of actual stars. Incidentally, this difference can be interpreted as evidence for about AD as the period when the constellation zodiac came into widespread usage in India.
As an example, for the date 7 December, the sun will actually be located in the star group Scorpio Skt. At present, a difference of 23 days has accumulated between the two systems Prasert Na Nagara It is interesting that Thai popular publications, such as astrology columns in newspapers, sometimes show traditional Thai-Indic dating for zodiacal sign periods, sometimes Western see 5. Returning in time to the Proto-Tai era of perhaps years ago, what can be said of month reckoning? It would appear that the Proto-Tais numbered lunar months consecutively from one to twelve, as discussed in the preceding section.
Both the Indian astronomers and their Khmer followers counted days in terms of lunar months, with the familiar system of counting 15 days of the waxing moon until full and another count of waning days. The latter count varied: 15 days for even-numbered months and 14 for odd-numbered ones, giving monthly totals of 30 and 29 respectively. As noted above, the Proto-Tais may have used a version of this system but the evidence is unclear. Some inscriptions show an in-between system beginning in [ka:rttika], referred to as the Kengtung system, see Eade Apart from superficial mismatches in month numbering, intercalary days and months raised more substantial technical problems, sometimes even with political consequences see section 9.
More fundamental is the shortfall between twelve lunar months totalling days, 8 hours, and some minutes and the solar year days, 5 hours, and some minutes. Nearly 11 days per year are needed to reconcile these cycles, i. A corrective sequence might then add an extra day month every three years, but sometimes the extra month would be needed after only two years. In Thai practice, a further minor adjustment was made about once in five years by adding an extra day. For more detail and comparison with Burmese practice, see Eade ch. In traditional usage within the Thai cultural milieu, there were different means determining which years were to have extra months [athikama:t] and extra days [athikawa:n], rendering the dating of traditional sources a complex task.
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The common method currently used is the so-called Buddhist method, set out in a manual of Luang Wisandarunkorn Prasert Na Nagara, , We slightly reinterpret this system here by supplying Western constellation names. The rules are based on two principles concerned with Buddhist holiday A:sa:lahabu:cha: 5. The Rains Retreat is to begin i on the first day after the Full Moon of the lunar month of [a:sa:t] and ii when the moon is located in the constellation of Sagittarius, somewhat widely defined. This is equivalent to [roe:k] 20 to 22 as in 4.
To determine whether a given year is normal or requires extra intercalary months or days, first the position of the Full Moon of the 8 th lunar month is calculated or determined from ephemeris tables. For a normal year, on the day after the 8 th Full Moon, the moon needs to be in [roe:k] 20 to 22 i. If this is the case, the year is declared normal, with twelve lunar months of 29 and 30 days, alternating. However, if on the specified day after the Full Moon, the moon has not yet reached [roe:k] 20, i. This extra day effectively allows the moon to progress and be relocated in [roe:k] 20 on the day of beginning the Rains Retreat, as the rule specifies.follow link
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This would entail the astronomical Full Moon occurring somewhat earlier than usual in the waxing sequence, as the particular 8 th month would begin somewhat later. The festival A:sa:lahabu:cha: is then held on the Full Moon day of this second 8 th month and the beginning the Rains Retreat is then be set at the day after, in which the moon would be in Sagittarius as specified. A different [suriyaya:t] method was used to determine intercalary months in royal courts of former times Prasert Na Nagara The phase of the moon at the change of the Chulasakarat year at the Songkran festival was determined.
If this was New Moon plus or minus five or six? Otherwise the year was normal, although [athikawa:n] days seem to have been occasionally added according to procedures not well understood. See also Eade, , ch. A final complication: as noted above, traditional Thai practice added solar leap-year days, referred to as [athikasurathin], as well as lunar-based [athikawa:n] days. Exactly how these two sorts of added extra days worked together in practice requires further study. Traditional Thai beliefs include the preference for even-numbered months for weddings.
A well-known manual of royal ceremonies for each of the twelve lunar months was written by King Chulalongkorn. The period of the planet Jupiter is nearly 12 years and that of Saturn nearly 30 years. The two planets thus come into a close cyclical alignment every 60 years. Note also that the sunspot cycle is between 11 and 12 years, with some alleged effects on weather patterns. As in the early Chinese practice, the Proto-Tais appear to have used the same item cycle shown in 3.
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The year-counting use of the Tai form of the cycle is widespread throughout the family Li, It is especially common in Northern Thai and Northeastern or Lao inscriptions. Gedney has documented the series in Saek and in other Tai languages of the Northern branch—which show some extra complexity in terms of alternate forms.
In Sukhothai sources and in those to the south the Tai forms were abandoned in favour of corresponding Austroasiatic and Indic terms, including a Austroasiatic version of the twelve calendrical animals, as in 7. When Tais came into contact with Indic dating system as used by Mons and Khmers these systems were readily adopted. However, to the north, at least, the tendency was to specify Tai years in the item as well as Indic era. The year animal cycle is important for Thai people as a way of measuring off periods of a life span; hence important transition points.
Other folk beliefs relate to relations among spouses or lovers. Spouses born in Rat and Pig years will get along well, in peace and prosperity; Rat and Horse, less peaceful, but ultimate cooperation in bringing up the family. Yet another set of beliefs relates to climate, and may have regional manifestations. For rural Southern Thais, the Dragon years are likely to be very wet. The first of the Indic eras to be used in Tai inscriptions was Mahasakarat, which had been in regular use for centuries in Old Khmer inscriptions. In use slightly later was Chulasakarat, starting in AD, apparently invented on abstract theoretical principles centuries after the date itself on the initiative of Mon or Burmese astrologers.
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This era gained in clerical and administrative popularity until it became the standard from Ayudhyan times to the reign of King Chulalongkorn; it lingers on in special ceremonial uses. It could be argued that the Tais of Ayudhya did not totally abandon the Tai year cycle but rather recast it into in Austroasiatic-Indic form. In calendrical expressions it was normal to cite the Austroasiatic form of the year animal cycle, e. Although the ordering in expressions like [pi: kun sapatasok] is the reverse of Tai-style [dap-kai], this new combination is still effectively a direct analogue of the original term Tai system.
While most features of the Gregorian calendar were adopted in Thailand in , Western year dating in AD was not. Note however that AD dating is now regularly used in Laos. Only thirty years later, there was a shift to the presently-used Buddhist Era, instituted officially under King Vajiravudh in Royal Gazette, As King Vajiravudh noted in his comments on the law, Buddhist Era had been known and used from earliest times in religious contexts.
The institution of BE dating thus should not be seen as a stark innovation based on a simple transposition of the dominant the Western AD prototype, but rather should be seen as a functional expansion: turning BE dates to use for practical secular dating. As to where to start reckoning new years, the Thais in the past have had a range of usages but the original Proto-Tai situation is unclear. The Chinese New Year is associated with the New Moon most frequently falling in February and this festival is widely celebrated in Thailand, although not officially.
Much more than documents.
But this reckoning works only for Central Thailand: the September-October New Moon, two months earlier, traditionally was taken as the beginning of the lunar year in Chiangmai and the North see 5. The Indic new year, important for court rituals and the traditional time to shift the Chulasakarat number, was the Songkran festival at the end of the rice harvest in mid April.
Rituals included offering a ceremonial ox a range of foods, with the food selected presenting a prognosis for the coming year. Songkran is now called "the Thai New Year" and is fixed at April. This period is currently celebrated in Thailand, no longer through a calendrical increment but rather as a public holiday during which Buddhist images are cleansed and water is freely splashed on all and sundry. That was the last official systematic change to the Thai calendrical system now in use.
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To achieve technical accuracy in dating, the change must be kept in mind when using the conversion factor to change AD years to BE ones. For pre dates in January or February, the conversion factor is rather , reflecting the fact that the older Thai calendar then in use had not yet reached Songkran, at which time the year number was changed.
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